Windows 8.1

Windows 8.1 is a version of the Windows NT operating system and an upgrade for Windows 8. First unveiled and released as a public beta in June 2013, it was released to manufacturing on August 27, 2013, and reached general availability on October 17, 2013, almost a year after the retail release of its predecessor. Windows 8.1 is available free of charge for retail copies of Windows 8 and Windows RT users via Windows Store. Unlike service packs on previous versions of Windows, users who obtained 8 outside of retail copies or pre-loaded installations (i.e., volume licensing) must obtain 8.1 through new installation media from their respective subscription or enterprise channel. Microsoft's support lifecycle policy treats Windows 8.1 similar to previous service packs of Windows: It is part of Windows 8's support lifecycle, and installing 8.1 is required to maintain access to support and Windows updates after January 12, 2016. However, unlike previous service packs, Windows 8.1 cannot be acquired via Windows Update and only accepts 8.1-specific product keys.
Released as part of a shift by Microsoft towards regular yearly major updates for its platforms and services, Windows 8.1 was primarily intended to address complaints of Windows 8 users and reviewers on launch. Visible enhancements include an improved Start screen, additional snap views, additional bundled apps, tighter OneDrive (formerly SkyDrive) integration,Internet Explorer 11, a Bing-powered unified search system, restoration of a visible Start button on the taskbar, and the ability to restore the previous behavior of opening the user's desktop on login instead of the Start screen. Windows 8.1 also added support for such emerging technologies as high resolution displays, 3D printing, Wi-Fi Direct, and Miracast streaming.
Windows 8.1 received relatively positive reception, with critics praising the expanded functionality available to apps in comparison to 8, its OneDrive integration, along with its user interface tweaks and the addition of expanded tutorials for operating the Windows 8 interface. Despite these improvements, 8.1 was still panned for not addressing all of the digressions of 8 (such as a poor level of integration between Metro-style apps and the desktop interface), and the potential privacy implications of 8.1's expanded use of online services.

Programming Languages to Learn - its compulsory

Languages like Java and C#. Media- and design-related webpages and software require dynamic, versatile and functional languages with minimal code, such as Ruby, PHP, JavaScript and Objective-C.
The most sought-after programming languages to get you up to speed.

1. Java

Java is a class-based, object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in the 1990s. It's one of the most in-demand programming languages, a standard for enterprise software, web-based content, games and mobile apps, as well as the Android operating system. Java is designed to work across multiple software platforms, meaning a program written on Mac OS X, for example, could also run on Windows.

2. C Language

A general-purpose, imperative programming language developed in the early '70s, C is the oldest and most widely used language, providing the building blocks for other popular languages, such as C#, Java, JavaScript and Python. C is mostly used for implementing operating systems and embedded applications.

Because it provides the foundation for many other languages, it is advisable to learn C (and C++) before moving on to others.
3. C++
C++ is an intermediate-level language with object-oriented programming features, originally designed to enhance the C language. C++ powers major software like Firefox, Winamp and Adobe programs. It's used to develop systems software, application software, high-performance server and client applications and video games.
4. C#
Pronounced "C-sharp," C# is a multi-paradigm language developed by Microsoft as part of its .NET initiative. Combining principles from C and C++, C# is a general-purpose language used to develop software for Microsoft and Windows platforms.
5. Objective-C
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language used by the Apple operating system. It powers Apple's OS X and iOS, as well as its APIs, and can be used to create iPhone apps, which has generated a huge demand for this once-outmoded programming language.

6. PHP

PHP (Hypertext Processor) is a free, server-side scripting language designed for dynamic websites and app development. It can be directly embedded into an HTML source document rather than an external file, which has made it a popular programming language for web developers. PHP powers more than 200 million websites, including Wordpress, Digg and Facebook.
7. Python
Python is a high-level, server-side scripting language for websites and mobile apps. It's considered a fairly easy language for beginners due to its readability and compact syntax, meaning developers can use fewer lines of code to express a concept than they would in other languages. It powers the web apps for Instagram, Pinterest and Rdio through its associated web framework, Django, and is used by Google, Yahoo! and NASA.
8. Ruby
A dynamic, object-oriented scripting language for developing websites and mobile apps, Ruby was designed to be simple and easy to write. It powers the Ruby on Rails (or Rails) framework, which is used on Scribd, GitHub, Groupon and Shopify. Like Python, Ruby is considered a fairly user-friendly language for beginners.
9. JavaScript
JavaScript is a client and server-side scripting language developed by Netscape that derives much of its syntax from C. It can be used across multiple web browsers and is considered essential for developing interactive or animated web functions. It is also used in game development and writing desktop applications. JavaScript interpreters are embedded in Google's Chrome extensions, Apple's Safari extensions, Adobe Acrobat and Reader, and Adobe's Creative Suite.
10. SQL
Structured Query Language (SQL) is a special-purpose language for managing data in relational database management systems. It is most commonly used for its "Query" function, which searches informational databases. SQL was standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the 1980s.

List of Open Source computer software programs

Some of the most useful computer software are given below for everyone to understand and download:
Firefox web browser: Browse the web with this awesome web browser. It's not only open source but also a product of Non Profit Organization(Mozilla Corporation).
Mozilla Thunderbird: Read and send email directly from your desktop.
RSSOwl Newsreader: Get latest news directly without searching or browsing websites.
VLC media player: Play your favorite music or videos.
GIMP: Edit or create photos, it offers many great features.
OpenOffice: Create and edit documents, presentations, spreadsheets and many more. It is compatible with file formats used by Microsoft Office.
Miro Video Converter: Convert videos to many different formats including Android, iPhone.
Miro: Awesome music and video player, allows you to search videos directly from it, browse websites, download torrents, listen to podcast.
PeaZip: Create and extract archived files.

Notepad++ text editor: A very useful text editor that allows files to be opened in tabs, advanced search and replace, auto completion and you can customize it by downloading additional plugins.
Ubuntu Operating System: Linux distribution which is easy to use, configure and learn. If you wish to switch to Linux then it's simple with Ubuntu.

Play games

There are many free games that you can download and play. Some of them which i like are:
Supertuxkart: Solve challenges and compete with others.

Fibonacci series in C

Fibonacci series in c programming: c program for Fibonacci series without and with recursion. Using the code below you can print as many numbers of terms of series as desired. Numbers of Fibonacci sequence are known as Fibonacci numbers. First few numbers of series are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 etc, Except first two terms in sequence every other term is the sum of two previous terms, For example 8 = 3 + 5 (addition of 3, 5). This sequence has many applications in mathematics and Computer Science.

Fibonacci series in c using for loop

/* Fibonacci Series c language */
#include
 
int main()
{
   int n, first = 0, second = 1, next, c;
 
   printf("Enter the number of terms\n");
   scanf("%d",&n);
 
   printf("First %d terms of Fibonacci series are :-\n",n);
 
   for ( c = 0 ; c < n ; c++ )
   {
      if ( c <= 1 )
         next = c;
      else
      {
         next = first + second;
         first = second;
         second = next;
      }
      printf("%d\n",next);
   }
 
   return 0;
}

Armstrong number C program

Armstrong number c program: c programming code to check whether a number is armstrong or not. A number is armstrong if the sum of cubes of individual digits of a number is equal to the number itself. For example 371 is an armstrong number as 33 + 73 + 13 = 371. Some other armstrong numbers are: 0, 1, 153, 370, 407.

C programming code

#include 
 
int main()
{
   int number, sum = 0, temp, remainder;
 
   printf("Enter an integer\n");
   scanf("%d",&number);
 
   temp = number;
 
   while( temp != 0 )
   {
      remainder = temp%10;
      sum = sum + remainder*remainder*remainder;
      temp = temp/10;
   }
 
   if ( number == sum )
      printf("Entered number is an armstrong number.\n");
   else
      printf("Entered number is not an armstrong number.\n");
 
   return 0;
}

C program for prime number

Prime number program in c: c program for prime number, this code prints prime numbers using c programming language. To check whether a number is prime or not see another code below. Prime number logic: a number is prime if it is divisible only by one and itself. Remember two is the only even and also the smallest prime number. First few prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17....etc. Prime numbers have many applications in computer science and mathematics. A number greater than one can be factorized into prime numbers, For example 540 = 22*33*51

Prime number program in c language

#include
 
int main()
{
   int n, i = 3, count, c;
 
   printf("Enter the number of prime numbers required\n");
   scanf("%d",&n);
 
   if ( n >= 1 )
   {
      printf("First %d prime numbers are :\n",n);
      printf("2\n");
   }
 
   for ( count = 2 ; count <= n ;  )
   {
      for ( c = 2 ; c <= i - 1 ; c++ )
      {
         if ( i%c == 0 )
            break;
      }
      if ( c == i )
      {
         printf("%d\n",i);
         count++;
      }
      i++;
   }
 
   return 0;
}

C program to print patterns of numbers and stars

These program prints various different patterns of numbers and stars. These codes illustrate how to create various patterns using c programming. Most of these c programs involve usage of nested loops and space. A pattern of numbers, star or characters is a way of arranging these in some logical manner or they may form a sequence. Some of these patterns are triangles which have special importance in mathematics. Some patterns are symmetrical while other are not. Please see the complete page and look at comments for many different patterns.
    *
   ***
  *****
 *******
*********
We have shown five rows above, in the program you will be asked to enter the numbers of rows you want to print in the pyramid of stars.

C programming code

#include 
 
int main()
{
   int row, c, n, temp;
 
   printf("Enter the number of rows in pyramid of stars you wish to see ");
   scanf("%d",&n);
 
   temp = n;
 
   for ( row = 1 ; row <= n ; row++ )
   {
      for ( c = 1 ; c < temp ; c++ )
         printf(" ");
 
      temp--;
 
      for ( c = 1 ; c <= 2*row - 1 ; c++ )
         printf("*");
 
      printf("\n");
   }
 
   return 0;
}

Palindrome Numbers

A palindrome number is a number such that if we reverse it, it will not change. For example some palindrome numbers examples are 121, 212, 12321, -454. To check whether a number is palindrome or not first we reverse it and then compare the number obtained with the original, if both are same then number is palindrome otherwise not. C program for palindrome number is given below.

Palindrome number algorithm

1. Get the number from user.
2. Reverse it.
3. Compare it with the number entered by the user.
4. If both are same then print palindrome number
5. Else print not a palindrome number.

Palindrome number program c

#include 
 
int main()
{
   int n, reverse = 0, temp;
 
   printf("Enter a number to check if it is a palindrome or not\n");
   scanf("%d",&n);
 
   temp = n;
 
   while( temp != 0 )
   {
      reverse = reverse * 10;
      reverse = reverse + temp%10;
      temp = temp/10;
   }
 
   if ( n == reverse )
      printf("%d is a palindrome number.\n", n);
   else
      printf("%d is not a palindrome number.\n", n);
 
   return 0;
}

C program to reverse a number

This program reverse the number entered by the user and then prints the reversed number on the screen. For example if user enter 123 as input then 321 is printed as output. In the program we use modulus(%) operator to obtain the digits of a number. To invert number look at it and write it from opposite direction or the output of code is a number obtained by writing original number from right to left. To reverse or invert large numbers use long data type or long long data type if your compiler supports it, if you still have large numbers then use strings or other data structure.

C programming code

 
#include 
 
int main()
{
   int n, reverse = 0;
 
   printf("Enter a number to reverse\n");
   scanf("%d",&n);
 
   while (n != 0)
   {
      reverse = reverse * 10;
      reverse = reverse + n%10;
      n = n/10;
   }
 
   printf("Reverse of entered number is = %d\n", reverse);
 
   return 0;
}

C program to swap two numbers

C program to swap two numbers with and without using third variable, swapping in c using pointers, functions (Call by reference) and using bitwise XOR operator, swapping means interchanging. 
For example if in your c program you have taken two variable a and b where a = 4 and b = 5, then before swapping a = 4, b = 5 after swapping a = 5, b = 4
In our c program to swap numbers we will use a temp variable to swap two numbers.

Swapping of two numbers in c

#include 
 
int main()
{
   int x, y, temp;
 
   printf("Enter the value of x and y\n");
   scanf("%d%d", &x, &y);
 
   printf("Before Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n",x,y);
 
   temp = x;
   x    = y;
   y    = temp;
 
   printf("After Swapping\nx = %d\ny = %d\n",x,y);
 
   return 0;
}

C program to add n numbers

This c program add n numbers which will be entered by the user. Firstly user will enter a number indicating how many numbers user wishes to add and then user will enter n numbers. In the first c program to add numbers we are not using an array, and using array in the second code.

C programming code

#include 
 
int main()
{
   int n, sum = 0, c, value;
 
   printf("Enter the number of integers you want to add\n");
   scanf("%d", &n);
 
   printf("Enter %d integers\n",n);
 
   for (c = 1; c <= n; c++)
   {
      scanf("%d",&value);
      sum = sum + value;
   }
 
   printf("Sum of entered integers = %d\n",sum);
 
   return 0;
}

C program to find HCF and LCM

C program to find hcf and lcm: The code below finds highest common factor and least common multiple of two integers. HCF is also known as greatest common divisor(GCD) or greatest common factor(gcf).

C programming code

#include 
 
int main() {
  int a, b, x, y, t, gcd, lcm;
 
  printf("Enter two integers\n");
  scanf("%d%d", &x, &y);
 
  a = x;
  b = y;
 
  while (b != 0) {
    t = b;
    b = a % b;
    a = t;
  }
 
  gcd = a;
  lcm = (x*y)/gcd;
 
  printf("Greatest common divisor of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, gcd);
  printf("Least common multiple of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, lcm);
 
  return 0;
}

Factorial program in C

C code to find and print factorial of a number, three methods are given, first one uses for loop, second uses a function to find factorial and third using recursion. Factorial is represented using '!', so five factorial will be written as (5!), n factorial as (n!). Also
n! = n*(n-1)*(n-2)*(n-3)...3.2.1 and zero factorial is defined as one i.e. 0! = 1.

Factorial program in c using for loop

Here we find factorial using for loop.
#include 
 
int main()
{
  int c, n, fact = 1;
 
  printf("Enter a number to calculate it's factorial\n");
  scanf("%d", &n);
 
  for (c = 1; c <= n; c++)
    fact = fact * c;
 
  printf("Factorial of %d = %d\n", n, fact);
 
  return 0;
}

C program to check leap year

C program to check leap year: c code to check leap year, year will be entered by the user.

C programming code

#include 
 
int main()
{
  int year;
 
  printf("Enter a year to check if it is a leap year\n");
  scanf("%d", &year);
 
  if ( year%400 == 0)
    printf("%d is a leap year.\n", year);
  else if ( year%100 == 0)
    printf("%d is not a leap year.\n", year);
  else if ( year%4 == 0 )
    printf("%d is a leap year.\n", year);
  else
    printf("%d is not a leap year.\n", year);  
 
  return 0;
}

C program to perform Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division

C program to perform basic arithmetic operations which are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of two numbers. Numbers are assumed to be integers and will be entered by the user.

C programming code

#include 
 
int main()
{
   int first, second, add, subtract, multiply;
   float divide;
 
   printf("Enter two integers\n");
   scanf("%d%d", &first, &second);
 
   add        = first + second;
   subtract = first - second;
   multiply = first * second;
   divide     = first / (float)second;   //typecasting
 
   printf("Sum = %d\n",add);
   printf("Difference = %d\n",subtract);
   printf("Multiplication = %d\n",multiply);
   printf("Division = %.2f\n",divide);
 
   return 0;
}

C program to check Odd or Even

In mathematics, in decimal number system even numbers are divisible by 2 while odd are not so we can use modulus operator(%) which returns remainder, For example 4%3 gives 1 ( remainder when four is divided by three). Even numbers are of the form 2*p and odd are of the form (2*p+1) where p is is an integer.

C program to check odd or even using modulus operator

#include
 
main()
{
   int n;
 
   printf("Enter an integer\n");
   scanf("%d",&n);
 
   if ( n%2 == 0 )
      printf("Even\n");
   else
      printf("Odd\n");
 
   return 0;
}

C program to add two numbers

C program to add two numbers: This c language program perform the basic arithmetic operation of addition on two numbers and then prints the sum on the screen. For example if the user entered two numbers as 5, 6 then 11 (5 + 6) will be printed on the screen.

C programming code

#include
 
int main()
{
   int a, b, c;
 
   printf("Enter two numbers to add\n");
   scanf("%d%d",&a,&b);
 
   c = a + b;
 
   printf("Sum of entered numbers = %d\n",c);
 
   return 0;
}

C programming examples

These programs illustrate various programming elements, concepts such as using operators, loops, functions, single and double dimensional arrays, performing operations on strings, files, pointers etc. 
Browse the code from simple c program to complicated ones you are looking for, every one of them is provided with output. 
C program download with executable files, so that you save on your computer and run programs without compiling the source code. All programs are made using c programming language and Codeblocks, most of these will work under Dev C++ compiler also. 
The first program prints "Hello World" on screen.


  1. Hello World
  2. Print Integer
  3. Addition
  4. Odd or Even
  5. Add, Subtract, Multiply and Divide 
  6. Leap year
  7. Factorial
  8. HCF and LCM
  9. Add n numbers
  10. Swapping
  11. Reverse number
  12. Palindrome number
  13. Print Pattern
  14. Prime numbers
  15. Find Armstrong number
  16. Fibonacci series

C program print integer

This c program first inputs an integer and then prints it. 
Input is done using scanf function and number is printed on screen using printf.
In c language we have data type for different types of data, for integer data it is int, for character date char, for floating point data it's float and so on.

C programming code

#include 
 
int main()
{
  int a;
 
  printf("Enter an integer\n");
  scanf("%d", &a);
 
  printf("Integer that you have entered is %d\n", a);
 
  return 0;
}

C hello world program

C hello world program: c programming language code to print hello world. This program prints hello world, printf library function is used to display text on screen, '\n' places cursor on the beginning of next line, stdio.h header file contains declaration of printf function. 
The code will work on all operating systems may be its Linux, Mac or any other and compilers. To learn a programming language you must start writing programs in it and may be your first c code while learning programming.

Hello world in C language

//C hello world example
#include 
 
int main()
{
  printf("Hello world\n");
  return 0;
}
Purpose of Hello world program may be to say hello to people or the users of your software or application.


Computer Network : Mesh Network Topology

Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. (Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can only travel in one direction.) Some WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing.
A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. 
The mesh network topology employs either of two schemes, called full mesh and partial mesh. In the full mesh topology, each workstation is connected directly to each of the others. In the partial mesh topology, some workstations are connected to all the others, and some are connected only to those other nodes with which they exchange the most data.

Computer Network : Tree Network Topology

Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the root of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.
This topology divides the network in to multiple levels/layers of network. Mainly in LANs, a network is bifurcated into three types of network devices. The lowest most is access-layer where user’s computer are attached. The middle layer is known as distribution layer, which works as mediator between upper layer and lower layer. The highest most layer is known as Core layer, and is central point of the network, i.e. root of the tree from which all nodes fork.


Computer Network : Star Network Topology

All hosts in star topology are connected to a central device, known as Hub device, using a point-to-point connection. That is, there exists a point to point connection between hosts and Hub. 
Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub node". 
Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet.
Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails.)


Computer Network : Ring Network Topology

In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network.  
Local-area network (LAN) topology is a ring. All of the nodes are connected in a closed loop. Messages travel around the ring, with each node reading those messages addressed to it. One main advantage to a ring network is that it can span larger distances than other types of networks, such as bus networks, because each node regenerates messages as they pass through it. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

Computer Network : Bus Network Topology

A computer network topology is the physical communication scheme used by connected devices. 

Bus Topology is a very simple network topology. All the nodes are connected to the single cable called bus, by the help of interface connectors. This central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as Bus Every workstation communicates with the other device through this Bus. 
It is easy to set-up and extend bus network. Bus topology costs very less. Linear Bus network is mostly used in small networks and it is useful for LAN.
There is a limit on central cable length and number of nodes that can be connected. There is always a Dependency on central cable in this topology. If the main cable (i.e. bus ) encounters any problem, whole network breaks down. This network topology is not suitable for networks with heavy traffic. And Security is very low because all the computers receive the sent signal from the source.