Third-Generation Computers (1964 - 1971)

In the third generation of computers integrated circuits (ICs) began to be used. These ICs were called chips. An IC is more compact than a transistor. A single IC has many transistors, registers and capacitors, placed on a single thin slice of silicon. So, the computer built of such components become smaller. Some of the computers developed during this period were :

IBM-360: Developed by IBM in 1964
PDP-8: Developed by DEC in 1965
PDP-11: Developed by DEC in 1970
CRAY-1: Developed by Cray Research in 1974
VAX: Developed by DEC in 1978.

High-Level languages such as BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) were developed during this period.

The advantages that the third-generation computers had over the second-generation computers were:

1. They were smaller in size as compared to the second-generation computers.
2. They generated less heat.
3. They reduced computational time.
4. They involved low maintenance cost.
5. They were easily portable.
6. They required less power to keep them going.
7. They were comparatively cheaper.

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