Learn Basic Language

Basic is a very powerful language as a tool for the novice programmer. Basic allows for a wide range of applications, and it has many versions. However, as long as the emphasis is on the techniques of programming and problem solving, the specific syntax is easy to follow.
Significant Language Features
Basic is a multi-platform language because many basic compilers use the same types of routines. Basic allows:
  • Loops
  • Input from the keyboard
  • Menu Driven Applications
  • System Commands - These are words that make the system perform a specific task immediately.
  • Structured Programming

Main Menu For Learning Unix

Redirection in Unix

Most processes initiated by UNIX commands write to the standard output (that is, they write to the terminal screen), and many take their input from the standard input (that is, they read it from the keyboard). There is also the standard error, where processes write their error messages, by default, to the terminal screen.
We have already seen one use of the cat command to write the contents of a file to the screen.
Now type cat without specifying a file to read
 % cat
Then type a few words on the keyboard and press the [Return] key.

Unix Variables

Variables are a way of passing information from the shell to programs when you run them. Programs look "in the environment" for particular variables and if they are found will use the values stored. Some are set by the system, others by you, yet others by the shell, or any program that loads another program.
Standard UNIX variables are split into two categories, environment variables and shell variables. In broad terms, shell variables apply only to the current instance of the shell and are used to set short-term working conditions; environment variables have a farther reaching significance, and those set at login are valid for the duration of the session.
By convention, environment variables have UPPER CASE and shell variables have lower case names.

Unix Wild Cards Wildcards

The * wildcard The character * is called a wildcard, and will match against none or more character(s) in a file (or directory) name. For example, in your unixstuff directory, type
% ls list*
This will list all files in the current directory starting with list....

Try typing
% ls *list
This will list all files in the current directory ending with ....list

Unix Files

Copying Files
cp (copy)
cp file1 file2 is the command which makes a copy of file1 in the current working directory and calls it file2
Use the cp command to copy it to your unixstuff directory. First, cd to your unixstuff directory.
% cd ~/unixstuff
Then at the UNIX prompt, type,
% cp /vol/examples/tutorial/science.txt .
Note: Don't forget the dot . at the end. Remember, in UNIX, the dot means the current directory.
The above command means copy the file science.txt to the current directory, keeping the name the same.

Unix Directories

Listing files and directories 
ls (list)
When you first login, your current working directory is your home directory. Your home directory has the same name as your user-name, for example, ee91ab, and it is where your personal files and subdirectories are saved.
To find out what is in your home directory, type
% ls


What is UNIX?

UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s, and has been under constant development ever since. By operating system, we mean the suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops.
UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows which provides an easy to use environment. However, knowledge of UNIX is required for operations which aren't covered by a graphical program, or for when there is no windows interface available, for example, in a telnet session.

Summary of Unix Commands

There are MANY commands available for you in a UNIX shell account. A list of them follows (in no particular order).

ls ................. show directory, in alphabetical order
logout ............. logs off system
mkdir .............. make a directory
rmdir .............. remove directory (rm -r to delete folders with files)
rm ................. remove files
cd ................. change current directory
man (command) ...... shows help on a specific command

Learn UNIX

If you’re just beginning to work on a Unix system, the abundance of commands might prove daunting. To help orient you, the following lists present a small sampling of commands on various topics.
Communication                                                                              File Management
ftp : File transfer protocol.                                                cat: Concatenate files or display them.
login : Sign on to Unix.                                                     cd : Change directory.
mailx : Read or send mail.                                                chmod : Change access modes on files.
rlogin : Sign on to remote Unix.                                        cp : Copy files.
talk : Write to other terminals.                                          csplit : Break files at specific locations.
telnet : Connect to another system.                                   file : Deter mine a file’s type.
vacation : Respond to mail automatically

Main Menu For Learning HTML

  • HTML Introduction

  • HTML Formatting

  • HTML Inserting Components

  • HTML More on Inserting Components

  • HTML Creating Lists

  • Creating Tables

  • Image Mapping

  • Hosting Your Website
  • Hosting Your Website

    Once you have finished creating all the webpages, you must host it onto a webserver. A webserver is a computer that can be accessed by the entire world and it is always connected to the World Wide Web. It contains several websites created by different persons. In order to make website public, you must register it. Once it is registered, that website address becomes unique only to your website and anyone who types the URL in their browser will be directed to your webpages.
    The second step is to gain some space in a webserver. There are several webservers that hire out space for a small charge and give you a user name and password to access that space and put your webpages. Once that is done, you are now ready top host your webpages.  LEARN MORE>>

    Image Mapping

    There is also a method of hyperlinking various parts of a single image to various webpages. This is done by image mapping. In image mapping, we can define a part of the image and create a hyperlink to it.
    The first step is to create the image map and link it. Then we insert the image and refer to the image map that was created in the first step.
    To create an image map, we use the MAP tag and give it a name to the image map.

    HTML - Creating Tables

    A table is an excellent way of organizing information and presenting it in a readable and meaningful manner. 
    The TABLE tag defines the beginning of the table. The use of CAPTION tag is optional. If you use it, a heading is given.
    Next comes the TR tag. It stands for Table Row. It indicates the beginning of a row. Then to define the contents of each cell in that row, we have to use the TD tag which stands for Table Data

    HTML - Creating Lists

    A list is a set of items or phrases written one below the other and related to each other in some way. We make shopping lists, to-do lists, check lists etc. We may humber them from 1 onwards or we may put a symbol such as a star or circle at the beginning of each item.
    The most commonly used lists in HTML are unordered and ordered lists. Unordered lists have a bullet before them. Ordered lists are numbered using integers or alphabets or roman numerals.

    HTML - More on Inserting Components

    Hyperlinking Images
    You can even chose to hyperlink an image. To do that, first define the hyperlink tag. Then insert the image and then close the hyperlink tag.

    Mailto Hyperlink
    You may have noticed in most websites that there is a link called "Contact us" or "Send us a mail" etc, which allows the user to send an email to that website. You too can create such hyperlinks. It is called the mailto hyperlink.

    Inserting Audio
    You can insert audio into your webpage so that everytime the page is acessed and displayed on the screen, the audio clip would play in a continous loop. To dothat we must use the bgsound tag.


    HTML - Inserting Components

    Graphics are a very important part of any webpage. Apart from using images to illustrate certain points, clever use of images also makes our webpages more attractive and readable. But there is a disadvantage in having too many images in the page. Since the storage space that an image occupies is very high compared to text, a browser takes a vaery long time to display an image on the screen. Therefore, the more the number of images in a page, the longer it takes to download it from the server. We must therefore make judicious use of images in our webpages.
    You can use two types of images in webpages - JPG nad GIF. JPG is an extension name for an image file that is created using Joint Photographic Experts Group format. GIF is the extension name for an image file that is created using the Graphics Interchange FormatLEARN MORE>>

    Html Text Formatting

    The basic formatting that can be applied to a webpage is for the text. By default, the Times Roman forn at 12 points is used. This can be changes according to our desire by using the FONT tag as shown belo
    FACE : allows you to specify the font name like Times Roman, Courier, Arial etc.
    SIZE: allows you to give a number from 1 (size 8 points) to 7 (size 36 points).

    COLOR: allows you to specify the name of the color you wish to apply to the text.


    HTML Formatting

    First we have to let the browser know that this file is indeed a HTML file. So the first code in any HTML file must be:

    So it follows that at the end of the file we must give the tag .

    The actual content of the page must be put within the BODY tag. though this is not compulsory, it gives you control of the basic look of the page by allowing you to specify the general font and background feature. LEARN MORE>>

    Html Introduction

    What is HTML?HTML is a language for describing web pages. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language. A markup language is a set of markup tags. HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages.
    HTML Tags
    HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags. HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like . HTML tags normally come in pairs like and LEARN MORE>> .
    HTML, XHTML, and CSS, Sixth Edition


    Input / Output with Files

    C++ has support both for input and output with files through the following classes:
                    ofstream: File class for writing operations (derived from ostream)
                    ifstream: File class for reading operations (derived from istream)
                    fstream: File class for both reading and writing operations (derived from iostream)
    Open a file
    The first operation generally done on an object of one of these classes is to associate it to a real file, that is to say, to open a file. The open file is represented within the program by a stream object (an instantiation of one of these classes) and any input or output performed on this stream object will be applied to the physical file. LEARN MORE>>

    Memory Management

    The new Operator
    In order to request dynamic memory there is the operator new. This operator new is followed by a data type and optionally the number of elements required within brackets[]. IT returns a pointer to the beginning of the block assigned memory. Its form is:

    pointer=new type                       or
    pointer=new type[Number of Elements]

    The first expression is used to assign memory that will hold one single element of a data type. the second one is used to assign LEARN MORE>>


    Address de-reference operator(&)

    When we declare a varible, it must be stored in a concrete location in a succession of cells(the computer memory). We generally do not decide where the variable is to be placed. Fortunately, that is done automatically by the compiler and the operating system on runtime. But once the operating system has assigned an address to a variable we may sometimes be interested in knowing where it has been stored.
    This can be done by preceding the variable identifier by the ampersand sign(&). which literally means                                 "address of " For example: - ptr = $a;
    would assign the address of variable a to variable ptr. The ampersand refers to the address of a variable in memory and not its contents. LEARN MORE>>

    Inheritance ....cont

    What is inherited from the base class?
    In principle every member of a base class is inherited by a derived class except:
             Constructor and destructor
    Although the constructor and destructor of the base class are not inherited, the default constructor and the destructor of the base class are alwyas called when a new object of a derrived class is created and destrroyed.   LEARN MORE>>

    Inheritance between Classes

    An important feature of classes is inheritance. This allows us to create an object derived from another one, so that it may include some of the other's members plus its own. For example, we are going to suppose that we want to declare a series of classes that describe polygons like our CRectangle, or CTriangle. They have certain common features, such as both can be described by means of only two sides: height and base.
    This could be represented in the world of classes with a class CPolygon from which we would derive the two referred ones: CRectanble and CTriangle ....LEARN MORE>>

    Function Overloading

    When several functions declarations are specified for a single function name in the same scope, the function name is said to be overloaded. C++ distinguishes functions having the same name by their number and tyoe if arguments.
    A function name having several definitions that are differentiable by the number or types of their arguments is known as function overloading.
    Overloading improves the readibility of a program by reducing namespace pollution. It makes the language extensible. It is used in inheritence and abstraction.


    Whenever an object goes out of scope, it is destroyed. The memory used by that object is reclaimed. Just before the object is destroyed, an object's destructor is called to allow any clean-up to be performed.
    A dectructor, as the name suggests, is used to destroy the objects that have been created by a constructor. Like a constructor, the destructor is a member function whose name is the same as the class name but is preceded by a tilde sign(~). For example, the destructor for the class number can be defined as shown below:
    ~number() { }
    A destructor does not take any arguments; LEARN MORE>>


    Parameterized Constructors
    A default constructor initilizes the data mambers of all objects with the same set of values. However, in practice, it may be necessary to initialize the various data elements of different objects with different values when they are created. Often you will allow users of your classes to pass arguments to the constructor. This can be achieved by passing arguments to constructor functions when the objects are created. Constructors that can take arguments are called Parameterized Constructors
    For example, the default constructor number() may be modified as given below:


    C++ provides mechanisms for ensuring that your objects are initialized properly before they are used. As your objects go in and out of scope, memory is first allotted to them and then initialized. C++ provides a special member function called the constructor for the initialization of an object.
    A constructor function is called whenever an object is created. An object can be created as a global variable, as a local variable, through the explicit use of the new operator, though an explicit call of a constructor or as a temporary object. Constructors are called when an object is created as part of another object. LEARN MORE>>

    Classes and Objects....cont(3)

    The declaration of a class does not include objects of that class. It only specifies the type of information the objects of this class type will hold, when created. Objects of a class can be created using the class tag-name as type specifier. The syntax used to declare objects is:
    class-name object1, object2, .....objectn;
    Ads will appear onthe next page refresh.
    For example:
    class book;
    int bookno;
    float cost;

    Classes and Objects...cont(2)

    Array within a Class
    Arrays can be used as data members in a class. an Array can be a private or a public data member of the class. If an array is a private data member of the class, then only the member functions of the class can access it. Otherwise if an array is a public data member of the class, it can be accessed directly using objects of the class type. Consider the following class definition:
    class myarray
    int a[20];
    void getval(void);
    void display(void);
    Here, the arrray a is declared as a as a private member of the class myarray. It can be accessed only through the member functions of the class like any other private data member . The member function getval() reads the values of elements of the array a and the member function display() prints the values of elements of the array a. LEARN MORE>>

    Classes and Objects....cont(1)

    An object is a region of storage with associated semantics. After the declaration int i;
    we say that " i is an object of type int ". In C++, "object" usually menas "an instance of a class". Thus, a class defines the behaviour of many objects(instances). For example:
    class Myclass
    int a;
    void getval(int);
    void display();

    Classes and Objects

    A class is a fundamental building block of the object oriented programming language C++. Bjarne Stroustup, the originator of C++ language, gave the name "C with classes" to this language initially. The class is the most important feature of C++. It implements OOP concepts and ties them together.
    A class is a way to bind data (describing an entity) and its associated functions together. In C++, a class makes a data type that is used to create objects of this same type.
    The prerequisites for classes and objects are structures and the functions. A structure provides a way to group data elements and a function organizes program actions into a named entity.
    Class Specification
    A class specification consists of two parts:
    1. Class declaration
    2. Class method definition
    Declaration of a Class
    A class is declared using the class keyword. the syntax of a class declaration is similar to that of a structure.
    The general form of a class declaration is : LEARN MORE>>

    Structures and Arrays

    Strutures are user defiened data types, whereas arrays are derived data types. While an array is a collection of nalogous elements elements, a structure assembles dissimilar elements under one roof. thus both arrays and structures allow several values to be treated together as a single data object.
    int a[]={10,20,30,40,50}; // array are elements of the same type (int)
    student stud1={2, "Rahul",12, 67.00, 'A'}; // structure elements are of different types
    Arrays of structures
    Using arrays of structures is similar to using arrays of anything else. When structures are present within an array you have an array of structures. To declare an array of structures, LEARN MORE>>


    Initializing Structure Elements
    The elements of a structure van be initialized either seperately using seperate assignment statements or jointly using the notation similar to that used for initializing arrays. The example given below demonstrates how structure elements can be initialized jointly or seperately.
    struct student
    int rollno;
    char name[20];
    short clas; // class is a reserved word of C++
    float marks;
    char grade;
    } stud1, stud2;


    A Structure is a collection of simple variables. The variables of a structure can be of different types: int, float and so on. (this is unlike the array, in which all the elements must be of the same type.) the data items or varible declared in the structure are called the members of the structure. The structure name is often reffered to as its tag.
    For C++ programmers, structures are one of the two important building blocks in the understanding of objects and classes.
    Defining a Structure
    We know that structure is a collection of logically related variables referenced under a single name. These variables can be of different type, and each has a name which is used to select it from the structure.
    A structure can be defined as a new named type, thus extending the number of avaialble types. LEARN MORE>>

    Math & Conversion Functions

    These functions are used for various algebric and trignometric operations:
    1. abs()
    The function abc() calculates the absolute vlaue of an integer. The argument to this function is an integer. It has a prototype in the header file math.h
    2. fabs()
    The function fabs() returns the absolute value of an argument. The argument to this function is a number of type float or double. It has a prototype in the header file math.h LEARN MORE>>

    Character and String functions

    These functions are used for manipulating characters.
    1. isalnum()
    This functions carries out the test "Is the character alphanumeric?". An alphanumeric character is a letter of either lower or upper-case, or a digit. It has a prototype in the header file ctype.h. The argument to this function is a character represented as an integer.
    The function isalnum() returns a non-zero value if the character is alphanumeric and zero if it is not so.
    2. isdigit()
    This function carries out the test "Is the character a digit?". It has a prototype in the header file ctype.h. The argument to this function is also characte represented as an integer.
    The function isdigit() returns a non-zero value if the character is a digit and a zero if it is not so.

    Header Files

    Various library functions are available in C and C++ in the form of header files. A hheader file is a file containing a list of all the functions and structures that will be used by a file ( for C++, classes and methods).
    Header files provide function prototypes and declarations for library functions. Data types and constants used with the library functions are also defined in them.

    In order to include the required header files in the program, angle brackets '< ' and '>' are used. the angle brackets prompt the C++ compiler to search for the header file in its include directory. LEARN MORE>>

    Scope Rules in C++

    Scope determines visibility of identifiers across function/procedure boundaries, code blocks and source files. The scope rules of a language decide in which part(s) of the program a particular piece of code or data item can be accessed.
    There are five types of scopes in C++
    Function Prototype



    Default Values in Arguments
    When defining a function we can specify default values that will be taken into acount by the argument variables in case these are avoided when the function is called. This is done by simply assigning a value to the arguments when declaring the function. These values will be used if that parameter is not passed when when the function is called.
    If the value of that parameter is finally set when calling the dafault value, it is stepped up. For eg: LEARN MORE>>


    Declaring Vs Defining a function
    The syntax of a function declaration is identical to the header of a function definistion, except that:
    It does not include a statement for the function. Which means that it does not include the statement body with all the instructions that are usually enclosed within key brackets { }.
    It ends with a semicolon(;).
    In the argument enumeration, it is enough to write the type of each argument. The inclusion of a name for each argument is recommended, though optional as in the definition of a standard function.
    Calling a function
    In order for a function to be used, it must be called by another function. To call a function, one enters the name of the function followed by a matching pair of parentheses inside which is the list of parameter values to be passed to the function. The list is in the same order as in the declaration. The parameters included in function declarations are called formal parameters while the parameters listed in a function call are called the actual parameters.
    For example, in order to invoke a function whose prototype is of the following format:
    flaot volume(float, float,float);
    the function call statement can be used:
    where l,bh are float variables. LEARN MORE>>


    A Function is a named unit of a group of program statements. This unit can be invoked from other parts of the program. With the help of a function the program becomes easy to handle and ambiguity is avoided when dealing with a small part of the program. The size of the program also reduced by the use of functions in a prgram.
    Functions are pieces of codes that do exactly what their names indicates - performs a task or function in your program. Functions are good because they let you write a code that is modular. Modular code is easy to debug and easy to maintain. In order to use a function, it has to be first declared and then defined. LEARN MORE>>


    In all programs seen until now, we have used only numerical variables, used to express numbers exclusively. But in addition to numerical variables there also exist strings of characters, that allow us to represent successions of characters, like words, sentences, names, texts, et cetera. Until now we have only used them as constants, but we have never considered variables able to contain them.
    In C++ there is no specific elemental variable type to store strings of characters. In order to fulfill this feature we can use arrays of type char, which are successions of char elements. Remember that this data type (char) is the one used to store a single character, for that reason arrays of them are generally used to make strings of single characters. LEARN MORE>>

    Multidimensional Arrays

    An array that has more than one subscrpt is known as a multidimensional array. Multidimensional arrays can be visualizes as arrays of arrays.

    A two-dimensional array is the simplest form of a multidimensional array. In a two-dimensional array, two subscripts are enclosed in square brackets. The rirst subscript designates the row and the second subscript designates the column. A two-dimensional array is used for table processing or matrix manipulation.
    Array Declaration
    The general form of a two-dimensional array declaration in C++ is:
    type array-name[rows][coloumns];

    Structured Data Type: Arrays

    Arrays are a series of elements (variables) of the same type placed consecutively in memory that can be individually referenced by adding an index to a unique name.
    An Array declaration is very similar to a variable declaration. For eg:
    float annual_temp[10];
    This will cause the compiler to allocate space for 10 consecutive float variables in memory. The number of elements in an array must be fixed at compile time. The elements of an array are ordered by the index. Array index numbering starts from zero. LEARN MORE>>

    Single Character Functions

    C++ supports many character-based input and output functions for reading and writing a character. These functions can read or write one character at a time. These functions are known as unformatted console I/O functions.
    Getchar() and Putchar() Functions
    The functions getchar() and putchar() are single character functions. The heeader file for these functions is stdio.h.
    The getchar() function reads a single character from the standard input device( keyboard). The getchar() waits for the character input until a charcter is typed at the keyboard. LEARN MORE>>

    I/O Functions

    Input and output devices play a key role indata processing. the first phase of processing data is input. Data is accepted in the form of input and output is generated after processing data. C++ language does not facilitate input and output with the help of keywords. Input and output operations are performed with the help of library functions. There are header files which help in performing input/output activities.
    Header Files in C++
    The list of keywords in C++ does not include functions. However, built in functions are available with C++ library header files. Declarations of function prototypes, classes etc. are provided by header files. The function prototypes are pre-declared before using them in the program. LEARN MORE>>

    Bifurcation of Control

    The break instruction.
    Using break we can leave a loop even if the condition for its end is not fulfilled. It can be used to end an infinite loop, or to force it to end before its natural end. For example, we are going to stop the count down before it naturally finishes (an engine failure maybe):
    // break loop example Output
    #include 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, countdown aborted!
    int main ()
    int n;
    for (n=10; n>0; n--)
    cout << n << ", ";
    if (n==3)
    cout << "countdown aborted!";
    return 0;
    } LEARN MORE>>

    Iterative Statement: do-while Loop

    It is another repetitive control structure provided by C++. It is an exit control loop. It evaluates its test-expression after executing its loop body statements. A do-while loop always executes at least once.
    The syntax of the do-while loop is
    while ;


    Iterative Statement : While Loop

    The while loop.
    As mentioned earlier, the while loop is an entry controlled loop. The syntax of a while loop is
    while (condition) statement
    and its function is simply to repeat statement while expression is true. While is a reserved word of C++; condition is a Boolean expression; and statement can be simple or compound statement.
    For example, we are going to make a program to count down using a while loop: LEARN MORE>>

    Iterative Statement : for Loop

    For some programming objectives it is necessay to repeat a set of statements a number of times until a certain condition is fulfilled. In such situations iteration statements can be used. The iteration statements are also called loops or looping statements.
    Parts of a loop
    1. Initialization Expression.
    2. Test Expression
    3. Update Expressions
    4. Body of the loop.
    The for Loop
    The for loop is a deterministic loop in the sense that the program knows inadvance how many times the loop is to be executed.

    The Selective Structure : switch

    The syntax of the switch instruction is a bit peculiar. Its objective is to check several possible constant values for an expression, something similar to what we did at the beginning of this section with the linking of several if and else if sentences. Its form is the following:
    switch (expression)
    case constant1:
    block of instructions 1
    case constant2:
    block of instructions 2
    break; . . .
    default: default block of instructions

    Program Control Statements

    The program flow in high - level languages is sequential. A program is usually not limited to a linear sequence of instructions. Therefore there is a use of control structures that serve to specify what to do with our program and how.
    C++ provides statemets to perform efficiently and effectively. Such statements are called program control statements. These are selection statements ( if and switch), iteration statements (for, while and do-while) and jump statements such as (return, goto, exit(), break and continue)
    Statements are instructions given to the computer to perform an action such as moving data, taking decisions or repeating actions. LEARN MORE>>


    An Expression is comprised of one or more operations. The objects of the operation(s) is reffered to as operands. the conditions are represented by operators.
    A C++ expression is a combination of operations, constants, and variables.
    An expression is any statement which is composed of one or more operands and returns a value. It may be a combination of operators, variables and constants. the expression may be simple or complex.
    Rules of formation of expression: LEARN MORE>>

    Precedence of Operators

    Precedence and associativity are the two important properties of operators. Precedence is the order in which a program performs / evaluates the operation in a formula. All operators have a precedence value. An operator with higher precedence is evaluated before an operator with a lower precedence value.
    When making complex expressions with several operands, we may have some doubts about which operand is evaluated first and which later. For example, in this expression:
    a = 5 + 7 % 2 LEARN MORE >>

    Operators & Expressions in C++

    An operator is a symbol or letter which makes the compiler perform a specific operation on operands (variables) in a program.
    An expression is a combination of operands ( i.e, constants, variables, numbers), and operators that perform a specific operation and parenthesis.
    An expression is a sequence of operators that specifies a computation. an expression may result in a numerical value.
    For example: x+y is an expression in which the sign + is an operator which specifies the addition operation. LEARN MORE >>

    Structure of a C++ Program

    The structure of a C++ program is as described below:-
    1. At the top of the program header files are declared.
    2. A C++ prgram starts executing from main() function. The body of the main function is included with surly braces.
    3. Each of the statment of the C++ program must end with a semicilon. a semicilon is also known as statement terminator.
    So my first program would probably be:- LEARN MORE>>

    Use of I/O Operators

    INPUT / OUTPUT statements of C++ can be used for input of data from an input device such as a keyboard or to obtain output on output devices such as VDUs and printers.
    In C++, input/output devices are treated as files; files are treated as a sequence or a stream of bytes. In other words, a stream in C++ means a flow of bytes from an input device to the CPU(input stream) and from the CPU to an output device (output stream).
    Streams used for input and output are: LEARN MORE >>


    Operators: Operators are tokens that perform some computation when applied to variables and other objects in an expression. they can be unary or binary.
    Unary Operators: Unary operators require one operator to operate upon. The following are examples of unary operators.
    & Address operator
    * Indirection operator
    + Unary plus
    - Unary minus
    ~ Bitwise operator
    ++ increment operator
    -- decrement operator
    ! Logical NOT LEARN MORE>>

    C++ Tokens

    One of the first jobs performed by a compiler is to read in the source code and group individual characters into tokens., the lowest level of symbols used in defining a programming language.
    A C++ compiler always collects characters into the longest possible tokens, using white spaces to demarcate them. White spaces must be used to seperate an identifier, reserved word, integer constant, floating point constant from a following identifier, reserved word, integer constant or floating point constant and arithmetic or boolean operators. LEARN MORE>>

    Data Types

    Data type is defined as the set of possible values a variable can hold. Data types in C++ can be divided into three categories:

    1. Built-in Data Type
    2. User Defined Data Type
    3. Derived Data Type

    Built-in Data Types
    The C++ compiler supports all the built-in data types. These data types are also known as standard data types and ae not composed of other data types. LEARN MORE>>

    C++ Character Set

    Character sets affect the fundamental part of the program code, the storage and transmission of data and the logic with which you manipulate text.
    The Character set inC++ includes the following"
    Source Code Character Set
    A C++ compiler may use any character set that includes at least the following characters: LEARN MORE >>

    Introduction to C++

    C++ (C plus plus) is a general purpose programming language based on the C programming language. In addition to facilities provided by C, C++ provides classes, inline functions, operator overlaoding, constant type references, free store management operators, etc.
    C++. Learn More